Truffles are hypogeal fungi that grow underground and live in symbiosis with the roots of certain trees.
This mushroom is a delicacy and a health delight.
Truffles do not get the sun and they receive carbohydrates and vitamins from the roots of the plant that the tree obtains through photosynthesis. The plant receives nutrients from the soil and water from the fungus in addition to promoting the expansion of its roots.
The areas without weeds around the tree are produced because the fungus extracts its nutrients causing them to die and in turn these herbs decompose with moisture and nourish the fungus and the tree. Therefore, a degree of humidity is important.
The reproduction of the fungus is by spores carried by animals such as wild boars, foxes, rabbits, mice, in their feces. In turn, the animals enjoy the pleasure of its taste. They find them by their pleasant smell. Truffles, when buried, cannot spread their spores.
When they are extracted there are also spores, so we will have truffles in the same place again.
These spores mature during the winter to form the new truffles
Spain Produces between 30% and 40% of all world production.
- Winter black : it occurs from November to March.
- Autumn truffles : from November to March.
- Summer : from May to September.
- Asian : from November to March.
- Blanca del Piedmont : from October to December and the most sought after on the market. One of the most expensive condiments in the kitchen.
It is convenient that they produce shade and at the same time separated enough so that they are aerated and brush can be produced that secretes nutrients to the soil.
The type of tree depends on the type of terrain. They can be wild trees or plantations prepared for this crop.
In no case are puddles suitable. The most beneficial thing is a microclimate of humidity that favors the proliferation of truffles. They resort to covering the area with weeds or even black plastics.
Heavy frosts do not suit him. The land must be sheltered if it is cold. Summers of medium temperature.
In areas like Teruel, tree plantations are being made to grow truffles.
Fases de la producción:
- Choose the terrain, limestone and with a suitable pH. Plantations work best in areas where truffle trees are already known to exist.
- Plant the trees, approximately 300 / ha, which must already be mycorrhized, that is, they already carry spores in their roots and are adapted to the environment.
- Controlled irrigation, especially in the area of burns that occur around the tree by the action of the truffle.
- Apply fertilizers when production declines.
- Do proper pruning.
- Fencing the land to prevent the entry of wild boar fauna.
Harvesting the truffles
Being a product buried in the roots of a tree, in Spain normally holm oaks, its collection is complicated.
There are usually marked areas that are visualized under the tree due to the lack of undergrowth, but the exact area is usually marked with a special dog, which detects it by smell and begins to dig over it.
With a knife, the truffles are extracted and the hole is filled with soil and weeds to start the cycle again. Not all of them should be removed.
Devices that detect odor are being developed.
Once extracted from the earth, they are immersed in water and with the help of a brush the remains of earth are removed.