The peach in Spain and its variety the nectarine are fruits of origin from China. Today it is a deep-rooted crop in our country. The peach tree is a small tree in the Rosaceae family.
Given the increase in plantations that require our sensors to control their humidity, we are going to dedicate this article to this precious fruit.
La evolución de la agricultura de la fruta de hueso con Plantae
Plantae sensors give stone fruit and especially peaches and nectarines precision agriculture with humidity, conductivity and soil and subsoil temperature sensors/probes. We can measure in real time all the parameters that make this type of plantation improve quality and quantity.
- Subsoil humidity sensor : to control the wet bulb and therefore the factors that favor water and the absorption of nutrients. Very important for all production phases, especially in the growth of the fruit.
- Conductivity sensor : measures the salinity that influences the quality of the fruit. In stone fruit from 1.7 dS / m (electrical conductivity) it begins to be sensitive and can reduce your production expectations.
- Subsurface temperature sensor: compares data with ambient temperature and other parameters
to make growth models. Identify the best time to start with nutritional and water intake.
- Room temperature sensor : which prevents us from hours of heat, from the control of new shoots, flowering and others.
- Flowmeter : controls the irrigation at the beginning or end of the irrigation sectors. Mark the start and end times for each irrigation, total duration and liters applied. while detecting breaks or plugging.
- Meteo Station que consta de: Pluviómetro, medidor de humedad Relativa y temperatura ambiente y anemómetro.
All this so that the peach consumer in Spain can have a quality fruit that can be consumed fresh, or candied, in juices and jams, throughout the year!
The peach in Spain
The peach in Spain is grown mainly in Murcia and Lérida, but also throughout the Mediterranean area as we see on the map. Badajoz, Aragon stand out. Also in warmer areas, such as valleys facing the sun in Castilla y León, Galicia, Santander, the Basque Country, La Rioja, Pamplona, Cáceres and some provinces of Castilla la Mancha. In the latter with family consumption.
Variedades del melocotón en España-La nectarina
Las principales variedades de melocotón cultivadas en España incluyen la Paraguayo, la Pavía y la Baby Gold. Estas variedades difieren en su tamaño, sabor y características de madurez.
The main classification is for its color and its meat . The same is the nectarine that is considered a mutation of the hairless peach, although it is grafted to create a new species. From time to time the peach trees produce a nectarine.
It is very difficult to make a list of varieties, because there are about a thousand in addition to the grafts. We are going to focus on the best known and commercialized in Spain.
- Merryl . In the middle of the summer. Velvety and deep red with yellow flesh.
- Baby-Gold . Reddish-yellow. Reddish flesh.
- Royal Glory . Reddish and yellow flesh.
- Queen Crest. The earliest. Orange and yellow flesh.
- Tirrenia. Appears very early. Yellow and yellow flesh.
- Calanda . Typical of the Calanda area. Late and yellow with yellow flesh. It has been granted the designation of origin.
- Catherine or Murcian yellow with yellow flesh. Ripe early.
- The nectarine. Hairless and peach variety.
- Elegan Lady (rojo)
- María Blanca.
- Queen Crest.
Peach production in Spain is variable and depends on the climate.
It is marketed from the beginning of maturation to the end of production.
Peach care in Spain
The peach tree adapts well to cold and Mediterranean climates. For this reason we find peaches throughout Spain. But there are regions where its production is greater and is more commercialized.
In these cases, the care of the plantations is much greater and the aim is to increase the quantity and improve the quality.
Irrigation with humidity and temperature sensors / probes
- The ideal is drip irrigation and controlled by wireless humidity, temperature and conductivity sensors that in real time indicate the need for water that the tree has around its root system. In this way the fruit grows without water stress. The texture is more uniform and the flavor more pleasant. If there is a lack of water, the taste is more insipid. Water needs vary according to the growth stage of the plant. During the phase of flowering and fruit development, more frequent and abundant watering is required. Subsequently, irrigation should be gradually reduced before harvest to improve fruit quality.
- Humidity control also prevents the main problem of peach trees, which is fungus, which appears more frequently if the tree has waterlogging. It does not affect the fruit but it grows less because the leaves are so rolled up that they do not oxygenate properly and end up falling.
- We also control excess salts as indicated in other articles.
In addition to these cares, the farmer takes care of the fruit in detail, protecting it from the fly with protective bags and eliminating some if the amount is excessive and damages the size of the fruit.
This fundamentally in the denomination of origin of Calanda in the province of Teruel and Zaragoza, where the quality and size of the fruit is taken into account for quality control.
In addition to looking for a loamy-clay-sandy soil, it is essential to control irrigation in dry seasons that coincide with the growth of the fruit.
Suitable nutrients for the peach tree
One of the best ways to fertilize the peach tree is to leave the stubble and crushed pruning remains as a cover. While providing nutrients, they serve to store moisture.
You also need minerals like:
- Nitrogen: which provides development to the tree. Its deficiency produces small trees, deformed leaves and smaller fruits.
- Phosphorus: metabolizes sugars, promotes flowering and fruit setting.
- Potassium: influences the transport of sugars. Benefits the formation of the fruit.
- Calcium: promotes root development and improves the absorption of other nutrients.
Peaches in syrup
Peach bargains are easy to find in the markets if you buy a large quantity. But then we can't consume all of them in two days. That has an easy solution.
- First we peel the peaches and chop the meat.
- Sprinkle them with sugar and add the juice of a lemon.
- Let them rest for half an hour.
- Add a glass of water, put it on the fire and let it boil for two minutes.
- Let it cool down and store it in a closed container in the fridge. Then to enjoy.
- It can be preserved by cooking in a water bath for 15 minutes. So we have peach all year round.
Peach jam in the thermomix
- Two kilos of peaches.
- The juice of a lemon.
- 1/2 kilo of brown sugar.
We chop the peaches once peeled and with the juice and the sugar we put it in the thermomix at speed 7 for one minute. Then at «male» temperature 30 minutes with speed 2.
Let cool and store in glass jars in the fridge. If you want to keep them for a long time, they should be put in a bain-marie for 15 to make them hermetic.
Peach juice with the thermomix
- Two peeled peaches.
- A glass of water.
- A tablespoon of brown sugar.
- Juice of half a lemon.
Blend for one minute with speed increasing from 0 to 10.