En este artículo comenzamos con un estudio detallado del riego por aspersión, dentro de los métodos de riego mecanizado o presurizado que seguiremos desarrollando para asesorar sobre la importancia de decidir un buen sistema de riego.

Mechanized or pressurized irrigation

Pivot en alfalfa
Pivot irrigation in alfalfa controlled by humidity sensors

They are the ones that need a mechanism that generates pressure to move the water, unless the tank is at a higher height than the sprinklers.

They may be:

  • Por aspersión:
    • Estacionarios.
    • De movimiento continuo.
      • Ramales desplazables.
      • Aspersor gigante.
      • Sistemas lineales de riego mecanizado.
  • Por goteo.
    • Instalación aérea.
    • Goteo enterrado.

What is sprinkler irrigation?

It is an irrigation method in the form of rain, which aims to irrigate the entire plot infiltrating the water with the intensity that is considered convenient.

General characteristics of sprinkler irrigation:

  • The floor does not need to be level.
  • It can be watered with the newly sown land.
  • It does not erode the land if the water pressure is soft and the irrigation in the form of weak rain.
  • No landslides or seed slides are caused.

All this as long as the sprinkler is the right one.

If we want the water emission to be very fine, we will use micro-sprinklers that we can regulate with the appropriate pressure. As we regulate this pressure we can water with microdrops, very fine drops in the form of a spray. Today widely used in greenhouses and nurseries to maintain a degree of humidity in the environment.

Sprinkler irrigation
Sprinkler irrigation. 1-Height of the tank higher than the ground, it does not need a pump. 2-Tank height lower than ground level. 3-Water pump. 4-Sprinklers. 5-ground and wet bulb.


  • It adapts to the different doses of irrigation required.
  • It does not need leveling. Generally facilitates mechanization.
  • Easy to automate.
  • It usually allows treatment with fertilizers, phytosanitary and anti-frost control.
  • They save time and energy.
  • They adapt to slight slopes.
  • Low labor force.
  • They can have different points of water intakes.
Distribución de los goteros
1-Distribution of the drippers. 2-Main hose. 3-Secondary hose and emitters. They can be buried to avoid disturbing the cultivation arrangement.


  • You can wash off some treatments if your schedule is not careful.
  • Poor uniformity in the distribution due to the action of strong winds.
  • Alto coste de inversión inicial, mantenimiento y funcionamiento (energía) si no está bien diseñado.

Types of sprinkler irrigation systems

Type of irrigation
Scheme of the types of sprinkler irrigation that we detail below.
  • Estacionarios: no necesitan un soporte, simplemente llevan la tubería con las válvulas y los emisores.
    • Móviles semifijos: tubería móvil (manual o motorizada).
    • Fijas
      • Tubería fija.
      • Fija y enterrada (cobertura total enterrada). El emisor también puede ir enterrado o no
      • Temporales en donde la cobertura es totalmente aérea.
  • Desplazamiento continuo:
    • Ramales desplazables:
      • Pívot o pivote (desplazamiento circular). 
      • Aspersor gigante: lateral de avance frontal.
      • De ala sobre carro.
    • Aspersor gigante.
      • De cañones viajeros.
      • Cañones enrolladores.
Riego por aspersión con bombaa
Pump spraying scheme. 1-deposit. 2-Pump. 3-Main hose. 4-secondary hose. 5-Sprinklers and emitters. 6-Wet bulb. 7-Accumulation of salts controlled by sensors / probes.
sensores/sondas de humedad
Sprinkler irrigation with probes. 1-Sprinkler / emitter. 2-Humidity sensors / probes. 3-Wet Bullbo. 4-Accumulation of salts.

Mechanized sprinkler irrigation equipment with front-feed linear equipment irrigates large amounts of cultivated hectares, especially cereals, vegetables, grasslands all over the world.

Sensor control of sprinkler irrigation

The sensors / probe of humidity, temperature and conductivity in the soil, solve all the problems of control of the irrigation of the land.

Installed at different depths, they tell us in real time the need for irrigation, the temperature of the subsoil and the possible accumulation of salts.

The salts accumulate by settling in the lower part and by evaporation of the soil in the upper part of the wet bulb, influencing the crop in a negative way, especially in the absorption of the root system.

The accumulated salts compact and impair the absorption of nutrients.

As humidity control is carried out in real time, this accumulation of salts decreases, because the plant always has the water it needs and absorbs the nutrients for its perfect development.


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