After our article on slurry, manure and compost, today we will emphasis on fertilization control and how to get the most out of fertilizers with humidity sensors, temperature probes, conductivity probes and the Plantae Weather Station.
Fertilization is essential in agricultural activity. The goal is to replenish the nutrients that plants absorb. Without them the soil becomes poor and would not be useful for successive crops.
The balanced use of fertilizers is one of the primary objectives of farmers. Nutrient control is therefore one of the goals that Plantae proposes with the use of appropriate technology.
If the amount of minerals does not meet the needs of the crop, we can find:
- Excessive chemical fertilization, because we apply too many minerals. In this case, there is an accumulation of salts, as we can see in the diagram, around the root system, preventing the normal absorption of nutrients.
- Insufficient minerals: the crop does not develop properly and the soil becomes poor.
The abonos orgánicos que dan lugar al estiércol, el compost y los purines, al mezclarlos con abonos verdes son la mejor forma de fertilizar los cultivos y los más económicos. A su vez reciclamos y mejoramos el medio ambiente.
Green manures are the remains of weeds, pruning of trees, harvest remains that also provide nutrients to the soil.
Chemical fertilizers are those that provide minerals and can be of several categories:
MACRONUTRIENTS (the ones you mostly need)
- Son los que la planta absorbe principalmente:
- Nitrógeno: (NO3– y NH4+). Favorece el crecimiento, con la multiplicación celular y la producción. Es uno de los más importantes.
- Fósforo: (H2PO4–). Ayuda en el desarrollo del sistema radicular. Favorece los brotes, el cuajado del fruto, la maduración y protege de enfermedades.
- Potasio: ( K+). Ayuda a la acumulación de azúcares y la absorción de agua. Favorece la fotosíntesis.
- De absorción secundaria, en mucha menos cantidad:
- Azufre: (SO42-.). favorece la fructificación.
- Calcio: (Ca2+). Mantiene el equilibrio ácido-base y el desarrollo del sistema radicular.
- Magnesio: (Mg2+). Ayudan el transporte de azúcares de la planta.
Micronutrients (absorbed by the plant in very little quantity, 1% of the total)
- Hierro, (Fe).
- Manganeso, (Mg).
- Zinc, (Zn).
- Cobre, (Cu).
- Molibdeno, (Mo).
- Níquel, (Ni).
- Cloro, (Cl).
- No metales:
- Borato de dihidrógeno, (H2BO3).
- Cloro, (Cl).
The three types of fertilizers applied to the soil in a controlled way, make agriculture ecological and sustainable. The plant absorbs carbon, hydrogen and oxygen through its leaves, while through its roots it absorbs the rest of the minerals except legumes such as alfalfa, peas, beans, beans, chickpeas, broad beans, lentils, peanuts and soybeans, which can absorb the nitrogen in the air.
In addition to fertilizers and fertilizers, we must alternate the types of crops, because not all have the same needs.
The goal is to use the soil to supply the plant with everything it needs but without destroying it.
The obligation to carry out an exploitation notebook and a subscriber plan is being considered.
The objective is to achieve sustainable soils and with them increase productivity while reducing pollution and environmental impact.
The purpose of the Law is to regulate the supply of nutrients to the soil and reduce polluting gases such as ammonia.
The operating log must include:
- The composition of the soil with periodic analyzes in rainfed and irrigated land.
- Account for the contribution of fertilizers, manure, slurry, compost and others.
- The amount of irrigation water and its composition.
- Fertilizers may not be applied on frozen, snowy or flooded soils, except rice.
- Ammonium nitrate fertilizers are prohibited.
- Limitations for the use of manure.
- Manure storage control.
Humidity, temperature and conductivity probes for fertilization control
"With good management of water in irrigation, significant water and nutrient savings can be achieved, especially nitrogen, reducing losses due to leaching."(PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE RATIONAL CROP FERTILIZATION IN SPAIN)
To control the amount of water in the soil, the health of the plant and at the same time the salts it absorbs, it is best to install moisture probes and conductivity. The ideal moisture helps the root system to absorb the minerals that the plant needs. The excess water has a washed effect and the nutrients move further down the root system. If it is deficient, they do not dissolve and impair absorption.
If the minerals are excessive, the conductivity probe indicates the accumulation, with the damage they produce for the plant and the soil. The salts do not evaporate. If the humidity is excessive and the temperature is high, it evaporates and accumulates the salts towards the top, forming a crust. Others move underground and make it less productive.
La sonda de temperatura nos indica la salud del sistema radicular y la facilidad de la planta para absorber los macronutrientes y los micronutrientes, especialmente el fósforo. La temperatura del suelo también influye en los procesos microbianos.
The probes adapt to different depths depending on the size of the roots.
The rain gauge measures the amount of water that falls with the rain in a place and in a given space of time. The data is sent wirelessly to the platform and focuses on irrigation optimization.
It measures the start and end time of the rain and indicates the liters per square meter of water provided each day. In this way, the rain gauge allows irrigation to be adapted to the exact amount of rain that falls on the ground at a given time.
Weather station with sensor:
- Relative Humidity.
- Room temperature at 1 m from the ground.
- Wireless sending of data to the platform.
- We apply the data to calculate the Thermal Integral and the Cold Hours of your crop.
With the Thermal Integral the availability of heat for the development and maturation of plant species is defined, with which predictions are made of the phenological states of the crop, pests and diseases and the optimal harvest time.
Las Cold Hours establecen el periodo de acumulación de temperaturas bajas por la planta con lo que indican la fecha de salida de la latencia y se previenen las fechas óptimas para prácticas agronómicas, heladas en momentos críticos y posibles pérdidas de cosecha.+Info AgroData
It is capable of measuring temperatures from -40 ºC to 248 ºC, thus covering the normal temperature range of even the most extreme climates. The reading range of the relative humidity sensor is from 0% to 99%.
The Plantae Weather Station is covered by a protective casing, which provides resistance to the sensors against inclement weather or the application of phytosanitary products. In this way, it is perfectly compatible with the agricultural activities of the countryside.
All Plantae technology combined with the proper use of fertilizers saves water and energy, therefore favoring organic farming and sustainable and also reduces the carbon footprint and the water footprint.
Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino