Currently many farmers are betting on changing the plantation when they do not find it profitable at the moment and one of the most widespread crops is super intensive almond.

Currently many farmers are betting on changing the plantation, if they do not find it profitable at the moment and one of the most widespread crops is super intensive almond.

Spain is the second largest producer of almond after the USA. Superintensive plantations can greatly increase production.

Plantae is specialized in subsoil control through sensors, in the installation of flowmeters and in the measurement of temperature, conductivity and relative humidity in the environment.

Our company does not sell almond plants or advises on the different varieties or types of almond to plant in a certain area or region.

Sensores en almendro superintensivo

Plantae sensors in super intensive almond

Plantae sensors give the almond a precision agriculture.

We can measure in real time all the parameters that make this type of plantations improve quality and quantity.

  • Subsoil Moisture Sensor : to control the wet bulb and therefore the factors that favor water and nutrient absorption. It is very important to avoid puddles.
  • Conductivity sensor : it measures the salinity that, if not adequate, can generate a problem of accumulation that in this type of plantations can be very serious. Irrigation without control can accumulate salts that damage the plant. In the almond tree from 4 Sd / m it begins to reduce its production expectations. From 1.5 Sd / m it can be sensitive.
  • Subsoil temperature sensor : controls root temperature indicating the start of
    root activity of the crop. Compare data with ambient temperature and other parameters
    to make growth models. Identify the best time to start contributions
    nutritional and hydric.
  • Ambient temperature sensor : that prevents us from hot hours, from controlling new shoots, flowering and others.
  • Flowmeter : controls the irrigation at the beginning or end of the irrigation sectors. Mark the start and end times for each irrigation, total duration and liters applied. while detecting breaks or clogging.

 

Caudalímetro en almendros superintensivo
Super intensive almond flowmeter

Irrigation of the superintensive almond tree in Spain

The super-intensive almond tree in Spain adapts very well if the climate and the low risk of frost are favorable. We can see the areas on the attached maps. The areas of the south that are suitable are expanding more and more.

But it is proven that the production and quality of the almond is much higher in controlled irrigation.

  • Super intensive almond plantations need more irrigation especially in times of very hot but without puddling.
  • The most convenient and best irrigation we can control is drip irrigation. It is essential to control the flow with a flow meter. 
  • Drip irrigation also favors the application of nutrients.
  • The shorter distance between plants causes a greater absorption of water and minerals. For this reason, a comprehensive control of subsoil humidity, conductivity and subsoil temperature is very important.
  • In intensive and super-intensive plantations it is essential to control the conductivity to assess the accumulation of salts.

We will significantly increase the quality and quantity.

All this controlled and combined with the time of year.

  • From early March to mid-May they need little watering.
  • From mid-May to mid-September, irrigation and nutrients must be doubled. It is when the almond is made. Absorption in this phase is considerable and more in the superintensive ones.
  • From mid-September to the end of November we decrease irrigation again.
  • When harvesting is best it is minimized or removed.
  • When the plantation of the super intensive almond is young, the contribution of water must be very abundant, thus we will make stronger trees.

Riego del almendro superintensivoCharacteristics of super intensive almond in Spain

Superintensive almond planting will be successful if we consider the following factors:

  • Let the risk of frost be late . The almond tree is one of the first trees to flower first. From the beginning of February to the end of May we can find almond trees in bloom depending on the area. The study of the risk of frost in the area is one of the main reasons that will determine the variety that is of interest because it influences flowering.
  • Temperature , it adapts to the entire central area although on the plateau it needs more irrigation.
  • Spring rains , very rainy areas in spring can harm pollination. Also, as it is a super-intensive plantation, it accumulates more humidity and therefore it is highly recommended to measure the relative humidity, which if it is very high, damages pollination.
  • The winds if they are strong destroy the flowers and therefore the harvest will be less. The orientation of the plantation is very important.
  • Harvesting is not done by varnishing like the traditional one. This form of plantation is prepared for mechanized harvesting.
  • Super intensive varieties are planted much earlier.
  • Production is much higher, that allows you to reap benefits in less time.

Almond tree production areas in Spain

Mapa de almendro en España-

Maps of the suitability of the almond tree plantation in Spain according to the following parameters:

Spring rains. They alter pollination. 

mapa de lluvias primaverales con zonas idónea para almendro en España-

Zonas de calor. El almendro necesita una temperatura media-alta. Aguanta bien los fríos invernales en épocas de parada vegetativa. 

Mapa de calor para la zona idónea de almendra en España-

Frost risk. Frost damages flowering. 

Mapa de heladas tardías para producción del almendro superintensivo en España-

Graphic of almond tree production in Spain by communities.

Superintensive almond care

Several factors influence the design of the plantation:

  • The winds , we have already indicated, that influences the orientation of the rows.
  • The row spacing s should be between 3.5 or 4 meters so that the pruning and gathering machinery can easily pass.
  • The separation between tree of 1 or 1.5 meters depending on how vigorous the variety is. Distance is important for pollination.
  • Once planted, a tutor will be added.
  • The almond tree in Spain is sensitive to excess moisture, so loamy or sandy loam soils are advisable.
  • It should not be planted too deep.
  • Pruning in two phases , first of formation and then of production.
Terreno idóneo para cultivo de almendros superintensivos
Ideal land for cultivation of super intensive almond trees

Pruning phases

  • The first in summer to remove the low branches leaving the others to develop.
  • In the first winter it is pruned leaving the selected branches to form the tree, linking one side of a tree with another side of the following as guides.
  • In the second winter, secondary branches are left to the chosen ones. If the tree grows little, we must also eliminate some secondary from those that emerged in the main ones.
  • The third year and until production, superfluous branches are removed and the tree is allowed to grow upwards.
Hub receptor en almendro superintensivo
Receiving hub controlling a super-intensive plantation in La Puebla- Toledo
Sensores a dos profundidades en almendro superintensivo
Sensors at two depths in super-intensive almond
Sensores en almendros superintensivos en España
Superintensive almond sensors in Spain