The almond tree in Spain, varieties and care-Controlled irrigation

Within the variety of nuts, it is in the almond tree in Spain where we install many of our humidity sensors.

Plantae is dedicated to the design, development and commercialization of sensor technology wireless for saving water and improving crop production. We do not sell plants or advise on the different varieties or types of almond to plant in a certain area or region.

In this article updated in January 2021 we indicate its characteristics, the ideal areas, the form of irrigation, pruning and the most important routes of the almond tree in bloom to visit in winter or spring.

Characteristics of almond tree in Spain

The almond plantation in Spain depends fundamentally on the following four factors:

  • Risk of frost, especially if they are late . The almond tree blooms early, in some areas at the end of January as we will explain later. The entire northern area is very cold and with frosts that can reach the month of May. This seriously damages the flowers and consequently the fruit.
  • Temperature , it is not required to be very high. In the southern zone and in the plateau it favors irrigation.
  • Spring rains , if they are very abundant, they harm pollination and it also increases relative humidity, which is not convenient either.
  • The winds if they are strong they destroy the flowers and therefore the harvest will be less.

Almond tree production areas in Spain

Maps of the suitability of the almond plantation in Spain according to the following parameters:

Spring rains.

They alter pollination.
Spring rains map for intensive almond tree
Map of Spain of spring rains harmful to intensive almond trees

Hot zones

The almond tree needs a medium-high temperature.
Heat map for intensive almond tree
Heat map of Spain for intensive almond trees

Risk of frost.

Frosts damage flowering.
Map of late frosts for intensive almond trees
Map of Spain of late frosts for intensive almond trees

Graph of almond production in Spain by communities.

Comparative graph between the area of ​​the community in square kilometers and the tons of almonds produced per year, according to data from the Ministry of Agriculture.

Almond area in Spain
Almond area in Spain

We note that the climate is essential. The productions of the Murcia area and part of Andalusia, the Valencian Community and Aragon stand out.

Varieties

The varieties of the almond tree in Spain depend on the area, especially the climate, that is why the previous routes vary because the flowering is not always at the same time.

Types of almonds, flowering time and duration.

The reference is the variety «Desmayo Largueta» as shown in the following table.

Almond tree varieties
Almond tree varieties

Almond tree care in Spain

When we plant an almond tree we have a standard or rootstock tree, which in Spain is usually the Franco-almond tree and the graft which is the variety itself.

At the time of planting, the number of almond trees depends on the type of soil and the climate, but approximately 150 per hectare with 30% of the total, although with irrigation systems they are reaching 1000 trees per hectare, especially if is controlled by sensors.

If the variety is self-incompatible, at least 30% of another variety that allows pollination will be placed. Both with the same pollination date.

Once planted, a tutor will be placed.

Controlled irrigation of the almond tree

For a good production of almonds in quantity and quality, the most important thing is to control the irrigation:

  • The climate of each area influences the production of the almond tree, therefore depending on the type of climate we must program one irrigation or another, because the amount of almond is in direct proportion to the water it receives.
  • The time of greatest need for water is during flowering and fruit formation. In spring, if you don't have enough rainwater, we have to supply your needs with controlled irrigation.
  • Water stress affects both flowering and fruit formation, as well as bud formation. In summer you can reduce the water a little, to promote maturation as long as it is controlled that the stomata of the leaves do not get close.
  • In autumn we need to increase watering because that way it favors the next cycle.
  • Controlled irrigation also influences the formation of the crown, which in turn indicates the root development that is proportional to the crown of the almond tree.
  • The best way to control irrigation is by dripping and incorporating humidity and conductivity sensors , as well as the flow meter .
  • Conductivity in the subsoil tells us if the ground is accumulating excess salts. Its control helps the well-being of the almond tree.

Plantae offers real-time control and also the possibility of installing a Meteo station to count the cold hours and the thermal integral.

Intensive plantation of almond trees controlled by Plantae sensors

Super-intensive almond tree (in hedge) -Optimizes irrigation with probes
Two depth sensors and flow meter

Pruning phases

  • The first in summer to remove the low branches.
  • In the first winter it is pruned leaving the selected branches to form the tree.
  • The main branches must form an angle of 120º between them, this means that the secondary branches are then better distributed among the main ones.
  • In the second winter branches secondary to the chosen ones are left. If the tree grows little the same we must eliminate some secondary of those that appeared in the main ones.
  • The remaining years until production, superfluous branches are removed and the tree is allowed to grow upwards.
Poda del almendro
Pruning scheme

Harvesting the almond

Producción de almendra
Esquema del proceso de la almendra

Ideal land to grow almonds

Ideal land for almond trees
Ideal land for almond trees

Most recommended areas to visit the flowering of the almond tree in Spain

Principales rutas del almendro en flor
Main routes of the almond blossom in Spain

A sight to behold.

  • Comarca Filabres and Alhamilla in Almería : with gastronomic days and routes to see the almond trees in bloom in the month of February .
  • From San José de Tirajana to Valsequillo in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria tours of its almond trees from the end of January to March .
  • Isora in Tenerife : route in February to see the flowering and festival of the harvest and flock of the almonds in October.
  • Valle de Guadalest and Valle del Pop in Alicante : they can be seen in bloom from the end of January to the beginning of March . Landscape full of almond trees and a vast industry for the production of nougat, marzipan and other Christmas sweets.
  • Quinta de los Molinos in Madrid : one of the few places in this Community where we can find almond trees, they bloom in early March .
  • Campo de Cajitán in Murcia : a large area that offers fabulous scenery throughout the month of February .
  • Villalpardo area in Cuenca in March and with a hiking trail .
  • Guaro in Malaga at the end of January due to its warm climate.
  • Sierra de la Tramontana in Mallorca among others that the Island offers in the months of January and February .
  • Loarre in Huesca with a spectacular landscape surrounding its castle in the month of March .
  • Garrovillas de Alconétar in Cáceres with parties in early March.
  • Valdelacalzada and Vega del Guadiana in Badajoz at the end of January and throughout the month of February.
Almendro con riego controlado por sensores
Plantae sensors, the solution to control irrigation instantly. Sensors in drip irrigation and flow meter

Source

Pantae-AGRO

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