Avocado in Spain, varieties and care-Irrigation with sensors / probes

Plantae is dedicated to the design, development and commercialization of wireless sensor technology for saving water and improving crop production. For this reason Plantae sensors conquer the avocado plantations in Spain and Hispanic America.

We are going to comment on its varieties and the care that this tree needs, which has such a special fruit and is recognized as one of the basic foods for good health.

Also the importance of controlled irrigation to improve quality.

Plantae does not sell avocado plants or advise on the variety or type of avocado to plant in your area or region. Our article is informative about subsoil humidity and temperature sensors and probes to apply precision agriculture in all its phenological state.

Avocado irrigation in Spain

Avocado cultivation and its phenology is more complicated than that of other fruits .
Proper irrigation is essential for avocado cultivation in Spain, as these trees require a constant supply of water for optimal growth and good fruit production. We are going to assess some factors that we must take into account:

Water needs:

Avocados need regular watering to keep the soil moist, but not saturated. During the period of active growth and fruit production, it is important to ensure that water reaches the deep roots of the trees.

Irrigation method

Drip irrigation is the most recommended method for growing avocados in Spain. This system provides a constant and uniform supply of water directly to the roots of the trees. Additionally, drip irrigation helps conserve water by preventing evaporation and runoff.

The roots of the avocado are not very deep, it is not a tree that can seek moisture from the interior in times of drought and yet it needs to have moisture so that the fruits are of quality and accumulate the precious fat that characterizes them.

If the humidity around the roots is excessive, it will quickly grow fungi. It does not want puddles because its root system is very sensitive and they rot easily.

Irrigation frequency

The frequency of irrigation can vary according to weather conditions, the type of soil and the growth stage of the avocado. In general, it is recommended to water avocado trees approximately every 7-10 days during the active growing season. However, it is important to monitor soil moisture and adjust frequency as needed.

Water amount

The amount of water required will depend on factors such as the size of the tree, age and climate. On average, avocado trees need around 25-35 liters of water per week. However, it is essential to adapt the amount of watering according to the specific needs of your trees and local conditions.

Soil monitoring

It is important to regularly monitor soil moisture to ensure that it is adequately hydrated. Avoid overwatering, as this can cause drainage problems and root diseases.

  • It is greatly affected by water stress , for all this the control with humidity, temperature and conductivity sensors and probes Plantae are giving extraordinary results in the plantations, as long as the area has the possibility of irrigation especially by drip.
  • In addition, water and energy are saved and this is very important in production areas that need control of irrigation water an increasingly scarce good.
  • In the north, the humidity is usually due to rainwater except in summer that needs irrigation and must be controlled by what we have already commented. Also the relative humidity and the flow rate of irrigation water with a flowmeter which also detects possible breakdowns.
  • La estación meteo de Plantae también consta de un anemómetro y pluviómetro

(+INFO on "Wireless sensors in avocado-The best for irrigation control")

Sensores en aguacate
Soil moisture, temperature and conductivity sensors and probes in avocado

Ground

It does not want clay soils because they are heavy and tend to suffer from puddles that are not recommended for this tree because the roots could not develop sufficiently. They would be left even weaker than they already are on suitable terrain.

The preferred soils are light soils, that is to say sandy and sandy loam, as indicated in the following diagram. If they are sandy they need an enrichment to nourish the plant. If there is good irrigation control, it is better adapted to all types of terrain.

Ideal land for avocado

Ideal land for avocado. Loam, sandy loam and clay loam. USDA Source

In short, the keys to its cultivation are:

  • El clima idóneo para el cultivo del aguacate es que sea tipo tropical. Mucho calor y humedad del subsuelo controlada. Temperaturas medias sin grandes diferencias entre el día y la noche.
  • Lots of sunlight, branches that are not sunny are not productive. The pruning must be done favoring that the light reaches all the branches with the exception of the central one.
  • Light, well-drained soils.
  • Controlled irrigation without stagnations.
  • It is sensitive to frost.
  • It is very sensitive to salinity, therefore we must irrigate with quality water and frequently, controlling when needed and measuring how deep it has moisture. Thus the accumulation of salts is less and greatly favors production.
Esquema de evotranspiración
Scheme of evapotranspiration. 1-Humidity and temperature sensors. 2-Intelligent humidity, conductivity and temperature sensor. 3-Probe deeper in the accumulation of salts. 4-Water phyration. 5-Evaporation. 6-Perspiration. 7-Rain and drip irrigation.

Avocado cultivation in Spain

Avocado in Spain is grown in Malaga especially in the Axarquía region, in Granada and the Canary Islands because it needs a subtropical climate.

Its cultivation grows exponentially. It begins to be cultivated in Huelva, Cádiz, Almería, Murcia, Alicante and Valencia in areas that have few frosts, due to the great demand that avocado is having in our country and in Europe, especially in Germany, France and the United Kingdom.

Mapa de aguacate en España actualizado en 2021

It also begins its cultivation in the north, on the coast to avoid frost.

Our production has the advantage of being able to reach the national and European markets in a very short time, unlike those from Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Israel.

Many farmers are betting on their cultivation and removing plantations from others that are being less profitable.

Also in the north, especially on the coast to avoid frost.

Most cultivated varieties of avocado in Spain

The avocado belongs to the Lauráceas family just like the laurel, cinnamon and camphor. The three species that this tree presents are:

  • Mexican small in size and very oily.
  • Guatemalan with intermediate size and quite oily.
  • Antillana larger and less oily.
  • Hass the most cultivated avocado variety in Spain. With hazelnut flavor, dark skin, yellow flesh, small and rough. It is the most consumed and cultivated worldwide. It is marketed from January to June.
  • Strong with a pear shape and stands out for its flavor. High content of oleic acid and medium fat. It has the cocktail variety. They are collected from November to March.
  • Bacon is a very early variety, harvesting begins in October in areas such as the Axarquía of Malaga, until the end of December. Made of green and smooth leather with an oval shape. It is a hybrid of the Hass.
  • Cármen a Hass type variety that appears on the market a little earlier.
  • Lamb Hass with a slightly different shape and later production.
  • Pinkerton longer than Hass and with a smaller seed, therefore more meat. It lasts a long time and is marketed from November to February.
  • Reed smaller in size but with a lot of production. It is collected from April to July.
  • Zutano oval and of medium quality.
partes del aguacate
Avocado parts. Exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp.

The avocado, «the third testicle» of Spain

Avocado is a derivative of « ahuacatl» which means «testicle» in the indigenous language. Given the increase in its production in our country, it is known as the third Spanish testicle.

The properties of this fruit are very broad:

  • One of the most important is its monounsaturated fat because it is beneficial for cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. Its proportion in the fruit depends on the amount of water absorbed by the plant.
  • Daily consumption favors the absorption of calcium.
  • Rich in fiber and antioxidants.
  • It favors the appearance of the skin.
  • High content of vitamins and minerals.
  • It is high in potassium. High consumption is not recommended for people with kidney problems.
  • Anti-inflammatory power.
  • It is ripe as it gets dark and it does so outside the tree.
Avocado

The guacamole

Typical avocado recipe ideal for making toasts, easy to make and healthy, because it counteracts the saturated fats that we ingest in multiple foods.

Ingredients:

  • 2 ripe avocados.
  • 1 large tomato, diced.
  • 1/4 red onion, finely chopped.
  • 1 garlic clove, crushed or minced very fine.
  • Juice of 1 lemon or lime.
  • A small handful of fresh cilantro, chopped.
  • Salt to taste.

Elaboration:

  1. Cut the avocados in half, remove the pit and scoop out the pulp with a spoon. Place the pulp of the avocados in a large bowl.
  2. With a fork, mash the avocados to a slightly creamy consistency. If you prefer a smoother guacamole, you can use a food grinder instead of a fork.
  3. Add the chopped tomato, red onion, crushed garlic, lemon or lime juice, and chopped cilantro to the bowl with the mashed avocados.
  4. Mix all ingredients gently until well combined. You can adjust the amount of salt and lemon or lime juice based on your personal preference.
  5. Taste the guacamole and adjust the seasonings if necessary.
  6. Transfer the guacamole to a serving bowl and garnish with a few sprigs of fresh cilantro.

It can be combined with salmon, tuna, anchovies…

Sources

Plantae-AGRO

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